The proportion of people in prison has grown by around 20% since the year 2000. This is greater than population growth, which has expanded by 18%. Over this time, while the proportion of male prisoners has grown by 18%, the proportion of women in prison has increased by 50%.
UNAIDS estimates that people in prison are on average five times more likely to be living with HIV compared with adults who are not incarcerated. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the difference to be even starker, suggesting prisoners are 15 times more likely to be HIV-positive than those who are not in imprisoned.