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Fact sheet sources

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Key information sources for Avert's fact sheets:

Condoms & lubricants

NAM aidsmap 'Female condoms for anal sex' (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2015) 'Condoms' (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2009) 'Types of condoms' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2017) 'Male condoms' (Accessed June 2018)

Emergency HIV treatment (PEP)

NHS Choices (2018) Can post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) stop me getting HIV? (Accessed June 2018) 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) PEP (Accessed June 2018)

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV) (Accessed June 2018)

WHO (2018) Post-exposure prophylaxis (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2018) 'Factsheet Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & breastfeeding

Terrence Higgins Trust (2017) 'Preventing mother to baby transmission' (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2018) 'Despite reassuring data we can't yet say U=U for breastfeeding' (Accessed June 2018)

i-base (2015) 'Transmission from breastfeeding' (Accessed June 2018)

WHO (2016) 'Questions and answers on HIV and infant feeding' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2016) 'Can HIV be passed to an unborn baby in pregnancy or through breastfeeding?' (Accessed June 2018) 

Catie (2018) 'Pregnancy and infant feeding: Can we say U=U about the risk of passing HIV to an infant?' (Accessed June 2018) 

HIV & harm reduction from injecting drugs

Linked sources

HIV & having a baby

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) 'Thinking about having a baby' (Accessed June 2018)

The body (2012) 'Having a baby when you have HIV' (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2013) 'HIV & pregnancy' (Accessed June 2018)

i-base (2016) 'Planning your pregnancy' (Accessed June 2018)

Poz (2018) 'HIV Family Planning' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & male circumcision

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention 'Male Circumcision' (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2016) 'Might circumcision benefit gay men?' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2016) 'Circumcision in men' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS (2013) 'Male circumcision 'doesn't affect sexual satisfaction'' (Accessed June 2018)

WHO (2018) 'Female genital mutilation' (Accessed June 2018)

World Health Organisation (2018) ‘HIV/AIDS’ (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & men who have sex with men

i-base (2016) 'You and your partners HIV status' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2015) 'Does anal sex have any health risks?' (Accessed June 2018)

Terrence Higgins Trust (2016) 'Oral sex and HIV' (Accessed June 2018)

World Health Organisation (2015) 'Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV' (Accessed June 2018)

World Health Organisation (2011), 'Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender People' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & mixed-status couples

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) 'When your partner is negative' (Accessed June 2018)

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) 'When you are both positive' (Accessed June 2018)

Healthline (2018) 'What’s the Risk of HIV Transmission? FAQs for Mixed-Status Couples' (Accessed June 2018)

The body (2018) 'Getting your sexy on!' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & occupational exposure

Linked sources

HIV & pregnancy

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) 'HIV treatment during pregnancy' (Accessed June 2018)

Terrence Higgins Trust (2017) 'Preventing mother to baby transmission' (Accessed June 2018)

i-base (2015) 'Transmission during labour and delivery (intrapartum transmission)' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2015) 'Can HIV be passed to an unborn baby in pregnancy or through breastfeeding?' (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2013) 'HIV & pregnancy' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & safer sex

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) 'PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis)' (Accessed June 2018)

Terrence Higgins Trust (2018) 'How is HIV transmitted' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2016) 'Are sex toys safe?' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2015) 'Prevention: HIV and AIDS' (Accessed June 2018)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) 'HIV Transmission' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & women who have sex with women

HIV & sexually transmitted infections

Linked sources

HIV testing

Linked sources

HIV transmission

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) 'HIV Transmission' (Accessed June 2018)

HIV & women who have sex with women

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) 'Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV — Texas, 2012' (Accessed June 2018)

GMHC (2009) 'HIV Risk For Lesbians, Bisexuals & Other Women Who Have Sex With Women (Accessed June 2018)

Mayo Clinic (2017) ‘Women’s Health – Health issues for lesbians – prevention first’ (Accessed June 2018)

NAM aidsmap (2009) Female-to-female sexual transmission' (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2016) ‘Are sex toys safe?’ (Accessed June 2018)

NHS Choices (2016) 'Sexual health for lesbian and bisexual women’ (Accessed June 2018)

Sexually Transmitted Infections Journal, accessed via BMJ (2003) ‘Sexual behaviour of lesbians and bisexual women’ (Accessed June 2018)

Last full review: 
19 June 2018
Next full review: 
19 June 2019
Last updated:
17 June 2019
Last full review:
19 June 2018
Next full review:
19 June 2019