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Timeline of AIDS in Africa
- A form of simian immunodeficiency virus probably transfers to humans in Central Africa around 1930. The mutated virus would later become known as HIV-1.
- The virus that would later become known as HIV-2 probably transfers to humans from sooty mangabey monkeys in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa around 1960.1
- Doctors in Zaire (later DRC) and Burundi see a rise in certain infections such as cryptococcal meningitis and PCP, a type of pneumonia, as well as diarrhoea and severe wasting.2
- Western scientists debate whether "slim disease" in Uganda is a new syndrome or identical to AIDS.8
- Uganda begins promoting sexual behaviour change in response to AIDS.9
- There are an estimated 5,500,000 HIV cases in Africa and more than 650,000 estimated AIDS cases.13
- There are an estimated 1.9 million new infections in sub-Saharan Africa.16
- Fela Kuti, Nigeria’s most famous musician dies of Kaposi’s Sarcoma, an AIDS-related illness.
- A South African AIDS activist, Gugu Dlamini, is beaten to death by her neighbours after revealing her HIV positive status on television.19
- HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa account for 70% of infections worldwide.20
- The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) is founded by Zackie Achmat to lobby the South African government for access to AIDS drugs.
- Two thirds of 15 year-old children in Botswana are predicted to die of AIDS before they reach 50.23
- Five pharmaceutical companies offer to negotiate steep reductions in the prices of AIDS drugs for Africa.24
- An International AIDS Conference is held in Africa for the first time.25
- President Mbeki withdraws from the "does HIV cause AIDS” debate after causing much controversy.26
- On his first visit to Africa, Pope Benedict XVI controversially describes AIDS as
“a tragedy that cannot be overcome by money alone, and that cannot be overcome through the distribution of condoms, which even aggravates the problems”.46
- Results are released from a circumcision trial in Uganda. The research shows circumcision of men living with HIV does not prevent transmission to their female partners.47
- As the target date for universal access passes it is revealed that 3.9 million of the 10.6 million people in need of antiretroviral treatment in Africa are receiving it.48
- A large scale microbicide trial involving 900 South African women is found to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition by 39 percent.49
- 59 percent of pregnant women received treatment for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.50
- The results of a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) study in Orange Farm, South Africa reveal a 55 percent drop in HIV prevalence among circumcised men.51
- These results contribute to a five year action framework calling for immediate roll-out of VMMC across 14 high priority African countries.52
- 1. John Pickrell (2006) "Timeline: HIV & AIDS", New Scientist, September 4
- 2. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1998) 'The historical question of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the 1960s in the Congo River Basin area in relation to cryptococcal meningitis' 58 273-6; Scandinavian Journal of Infectious diseases (1987) ''Early Aids cases originating from Zaire and Burundi' (1962-1976) 19, 511-17
- 3. Serwadda D, Mugerwa RD, Sewankambo NK, et al (1985) 'Slim disease: a new disease in Uganda and its association with HTLV-III infection', the Lancet, 2:849-52
- 4. Weller I., Crawford D.H., Iliescu V., MacLennan K., Sutherland S., Tedder R.S., and Adler M.W. (1984) 'Homosexual men in London: Lymphadenopathy, immune status, and Epstein-Barr virus infection', Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Volume 437, edited by Selikoff I.J, Teirstein A.S. and Hirschman S.Z., The New York Academy of Sciences, p.248-249
- 5. Bayley A.C. (1984) 'Aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma in Zambia', 1983', the Lancet 1:1318-20; Coker R, Wood PB (1986) 'Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in N.E. Zaire', Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., 1986;80(6):965-6
- 6. Van de Perre, P, Rouvroy D.Lepage, P et. al. (1984) 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Rwanda', the Lancet 2:62-5; Piot P, Quinn T.C., Taelman H. et al. (1984), 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a heterosexual population in Zaire', the Lancet 2:65-69
- 7. Illiffe, J (2006) "The African AIDS epidemic: A History" James Currey Press Oxford. Pg 13
- 8. Serwadda D, Mugerwa RD, Sewankambo NK, et al (1985) 'Slim disease: a new disease in Uganda and its association with HTLV-III infection' , the Lancet, 2:849-52 and Kamradt, T., Niese, D., Vogel F. (1985) 'Slim disease (AIDS)', the Lancet 1985;ii: 1425
- 9. AIDS Action (1987) "Uganda: an AIDS control programme" Nov;(1):66
- 10. FDA 'HIV/AIDS historical time line 1981-1990'
- 11. Bureau of Hygiene & Tropical Diseases (1987), 'AIDS Newsletter', Issue 16, October
- 12. (1990) ' AIDS in Africa: A killer rages on' September 16
- 13. Chin, J. (1990) 'Global estimates of AIDS and HIV infections: 1990' in AIDS 1990, 'A year in review', Current Science Ltd. p. S277-S283
- 14. WHO (1995) 'Global Programme on AIDS, progress report 1992-1993', p.2
- 15. Bureau of Hygiene & Tropical Diseases (1993) 'AIDS newsletter' Vol.8 (7/8) May 31
- 16. Human Sciences Research Council (2004) 'An Audit of HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe', p.8
- 17. Human Sciences Research Council (2004) 'An Audit of HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe', p.8
- 18. Brown D. (1996) 'With fanfare, Global AIDS Conference gets underway in Vancouver', the Washington Post, July 8
- 19. The Associated Press (1998) 'HIV Positive SAfrica Woman Murdered', December 28
- 20. UNAIDS (1998) 'AIDS epidemic update' [pdf], December
- 21. Swarns R.L. (2000) 'South Africa in a furor over advice about AIDS', the New York Times, March 19
- 22. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1999) 'Researchers identify a simple, affordable drug regimen that is highly effective in preventing HIV infection in infants or mothers with the disease', July 14
- 23. Gottlieb S. (2000) 'UN says up to half the teenagers in Africa will die of AIDS', the BMJ 53:67 July 8
- 24. Kahn J. (2000) 'U.S. offers Africa billions to fight AIDS', the New York Times, July 19
- 25. Swarns R. and L.K. Altman (2000) 'Amid controversy, South Africa opens World AIDS forum', the New York Times, July 19
- 26. Agence France-Presse (2000) 'S Africa's Mbeki withdraws from HIV/AIDS debate: report', October 15
- 27. Sidley P. (2001) '1 in 4 pregnant women in South Africa has HIV', the BMJ 322:755, March 31
- 28. The Independent (2001) 'Nkosi Johnson dies as he lived, a symbol of the tragedy of Aids' June 2.
- 29. Brown D. (2002) 'Global Fund rebuffs U.S. in picking leader', the Washington post, April 25
- 30. Irin News (2002) 'BOTSWANA: Free antiretroviral campaign might not last', January 2002
- 31. Sidley P. (2002) 'Mbeki forced to do a U turn over AIDS drugs', the BMJ 324:997, April 27
- 32. Sharma D. C. (2003) 'ARV prices nosedive after Clinton brokering', The Lancet 362:1467, November 1
- 33. Kapp C. (2003) 'AIDS campaign signals new WHO priorities and approach', The Lancet 362:1900-1901, December 6
- 34. Fleck F. (2003) 'WHO issues global alert after grim report on HIV/AIDS', BMJ 327:698, September 27
- 35. Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, U.S. Department of State (2004) 'Bringing Hope and Saving Lives: Building Sustainable HIV/AIDS Treatment', August
- 36. UNAIDS (2008) 'South Africa'
- 37. Pilcher H.R. (2004) 'Uganda's HIV epidemic wanes', Nature
- 38. Guardian (2005) 'G8 leaders agree $ 15bn Africa package', July 10
- 39. BBC News (2005) 'Mandela's eldest son dies of AIDS', January 6
- 40. WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF (2007) 'Towards Universal Access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector'
- 41. WHO (2007) 'WHO and UNAIDS announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for HIV prevention' 28 March
- 42. The Boston Globe (2007) 'Saving the Babies: A Victory in Africa', 27 August
- 43. Reuters (2007) 'FACTBOX - South Africa's new HIV/AIDS plan'
- 44. UNAIDS (2008) 'Report on the global AIDS epidemic'
- 45. WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF (2009) 'Towards Universal Access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector'
- 46. Times Online (2009, 17th March) 'Pope says condoms are not the solution to Aids - they make it worse'
- 47. Wawer, M. J et al (2009) 'Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmssion to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomized controlled trial', The Lancet, 18th July, Vol. 374, 9685: 229-237
- 48. WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF (2010) 'Towards Universal Access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS Interventions in the Health Sector'
- 49. Karim, Q.A. et al (2010) 'Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women', 19th July 2010, Sciencexpress
- 50. UNAIDS (2012) 'World AIDS Day Report - Results'
- 51. UNAIDS (2011) 'New data from study roll-out provides further evidence that male circumcision is effective in preventing HIV in men'
- 52. UNAIDS (2011) 'International partners call for accelerated access to voluntary medical male circumcision in eastern and southern Africa'
- 53. UNAIDS (2012) 'Asha-Rose Migiro appointed as UN Secretary-General's Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa'
- 54. WHO (2013, June) 'Global update on HIV treatment 2013: Results, Impact and Opportunities'