Transgender people are among the groups most affected by the HIV epidemic. The term ‘transgender’ refers to people whose gender identity and expression are different to the social expectations of gender. They may see themselves as male, female, gender non-conformist, or one of many other gender-variant categories. There are an estimated 15 million transgender people living around the world.1
The global picture of HIV among transgender people is varied – with HIV prevalence ranging from 8% to 68% and HIV incidence.2 Transgender people are among the groups most affected by HIV, particularly in Latin America and Asia and the Pacific regions.
Generally, HIV prevalence among transgender women (people who are born as men but identify as being women) is higher than transgender men (people who are born as women but identify as being men). However, very little is known about transgender men and their vulnerability to HIV. Globally, it is estimated that around 19% of transgender women are living with HIV.3They are also 49 times more likely to acquire HIV then all adults.3
Stigma, discriminatory laws, marginalisation and social exclusion put transgender people at an increased risk of HIV.
What puts transgender people at risk of HIV?
Globally, a high proportion of transgender people engage in sex work. The proportion of transgender people who sell sex is estimated to be up to 90% in India, 84% in Malaysia, 81% in Indonesia, 47% in El Salvador and 36% in Cambodia.3
HIV prevalence among transgender sex workers is as high as 32% in Ecuador and Panama – compared to HIV prevalence’s of just 0.4% and 0.6% respectively for their general population.3 In 2008, a systematic review showed that global HIV prevalence for transgender people who engaged in sex was 27%, compared to just 15% for transgender people who did not sell sex.4
Data suggests that HIV prevalence is up to nine times higher for transgender sex workers compared to female sex workers.3
Social exclusion, economic vulnerability and a lack of employment opportunities means that sex work is often the most viable form of income available to transgender people.3
In addition, the high costs associated with transition healthcare can put extra pressure on transgender people to make money.1 Sex workers sometimes get paid more for unprotected sex, and often feel under pressure not to use a condom, which makes them highly vulnerable to HIV.
Knowledge and reported use of condoms is generally low among transgender sex workers. In Asia and the Pacific, only 50% of transgender sex workers are aware of HIV and HIV testing, and only 50% reported using condoms consistently with clients and casual partners.3
There are high rates of unprotected anal sex among transgender women, which carries a high risk of HIV transmission.2 Several factors affect this situation. Stigma and discrimination, leading to low-self esteem and disempowerment, can make it harder for transgender people to insist on condom use.1
In many settings, condom use is often controlled by the insertive sexual partner, so many transgender women who have sex with men can feel unable to instigate condom use.5 Gender-changing hormones, which some transgender women use, can lead to erectile dysfunction, increasing the likelihood of taking the receptive role during sex.6
There are other social factors that make transgender people more likely to engage in high-risk sex. Studies have shown that some transgender people who want to affirm their gender through sex or who fear rejection from sexual partners can be more likely to agree to unprotected sex.7
The stress of social isolation may also lead to a much higher rate of drug and alcohol use among transgender people, which can affect their judgement of risk and make them less likely to use condoms effectively.
It is common for transgender people to obtain injectable hormones, the most common form of gender enhancement, and carry out the injecting themselves. Without counselling on safe injecting practices people going through this process may be very vulnerable to HIV transmission, because of a risk of sharing needles with others.8
Social and legal factors
In addition to behavioural factors, a complex set of overlapping social-cultural, legal and economic factors contribute to an increased risk of HIV acquisition for transgender people around the world.
Transgender people may experience gender-based violence, stigma, discrimination and marginalisation in the societies that they live. This, coupled with a lack of legal recognition of their gender, social exclusion and a lack of economic and educational opportunities make transgender people vulnerable to HIV.
HIV prevention for transgender people
Transgender people can have very diverse HIV prevention needs. Targeted prevention approaches that respond to the specific needs of individuals are essential to reducing HIV infections. In addition, prevention initiatives that empower transgender people and enable them to take the lead in meeting the needs of their own community are the most effective.9 Only 39% of countries in 2014 had specific programmes that target transgender people in their national HIV strategies.3
In India, HIV services have been targeted at transgender people – reaching an estimated 83% of the transgender population. They have also made marked steps in officially recognising transgender people, also called Hijras, as a third gender. This means that local authorities need to ensure that they have health and social programmes that meet their needs, whilst also giving them the right to vote.10
Providing welfare, employment initiatives and housing can address the factors that make transgender people more likely to have risky sex.11 Services for other needs should also be provided, such as mental health counselling and support for a sex change operation.
Successful HIV prevention programmes for transgender people
Case study: Linking transgender people to tailored health and human rights services, El Salvador
El Salvador is estimated to have over 2,000 transgender people – more than a quarter of whom live in the capital city, San Salvador.12 They are one of the country’s most stigmatised groups, and regularly subject to human rights violations, including hate crimes.13 Nearly half of the transgender women in San Salvador report that their main income is from selling sex, and HIV prevalence among transgender women in the city is estimated at 16.2% compared to less than 1% among the general population.12
In 2014, El Salvador’s Ministry of Health partnered with NGO, Plan International, to reduce the rate of new HIV infections among transgender people and other key affected populations. Three comprehensive prevention community centres were established. Run by peers, the centres provide basic HIV prevention and healthcare services tailored to the specific needs of transgender people. These include general medical and mental health services, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), as well as behaviour change communication on correct and consistent condom and lubricant use.12
Mobile teams consisting of two peer educators, a laboratory technician and a counsellor work with the centres to provide HTC in areas with high numbers of transgender people. Known as VICITS, they have staff who are trained to provide stigma-free services to transgender people and other key populations. They also provide combination HIV prevention, integrated HIV and sexually transmitted infection diagnosis and treatment.12
143 transgender people—about one quarter of San Salvador’s transgender population - were reached with a basic HIV prevention package during the first six months of 2015. VICITS have also strengthened the efforts of transgender women in San Salvador to claim recognition as a group distinct from MSM. As well as HIV services, the centres also provide information and support on topics such as violence, human rights violations and gender-affirming procedures, including hormone therapy.12
Case study: TLBz Sexperts, Thailand
TBLz Sexperts is a project that uses social media for HIV prevention in Thailand. The website provides a space where transgender people can talk about issues or topics that are relevant to them, such as fashion, sex or socialising. The project then uses this space to advise users on safer sex.14 15
The project was created in response to transgender people being a ‘hard to reach’ group in Thailand. Although there is a large population of transgender women in Thailand, they are often a closed community. As the project leader Nada Chaiyajit states, ‘transgender people only wanted to engage with inner circles’.16
It was therefore imperative that HIV prevention messages came from within the community. Many transgender people were already sharing video clips and using the internet to socialise, so it made sense to create an internet forum to discuss topics such as how the Thai constitution effects transgender people’s human rights in a way that was accessible to the audience.
"The best part is we know exactly what we are." - Nada Chaiyajit transgender activist from Chiang Mai, who leads the TLBz Sexpert programme 17
Online peer counselling has the potential to be adapted by transgender people to meet the different sexual health needs of different community settings.
Case study: Tamil Nadu Transgender Welfare Board, India
In Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India, transgender women, or ‘Aravanis’, have a history that goes back centuries.18 However, in the present day they face many of the structural factors that make transgender people at risk of HIV. One study in India found that 46% of transgender women questioned reported being subjected to forced sex. Many Aravanis also consume alcohol excessively, to ‘manage rough clients’ or ‘forget worries’.19
In 2008 the state government established a ‘Transgender Welfare Board’ to address the problems faced by the community. The scheme ensures access to education, providing different forms of income generation such as land, and putting housing and health measures in place.
Many transgender people have now been issued with official identity cards stating their gender as ‘Aravani’, addressing the barrier to healthcare faced by transgender people who don’t have official identification. They also run an official ‘Transgender Day’, promoting the culture, tradition and healthcare of transgender people, and therefore self-esteem.20
Tamil Nadu is also the only state to provide free sex reassignment surgery.21 States in India, such as Tamil Nadu, that have a history of transgender people organising groups to advocate for their own rights, tend to also have the highest standards of care and the most community-based organisations meeting transgender people’s needs.22
This demonstrates that, whilst the welfare board provides a good example of state-level practice that could be replicated across South Asia, there is also a real need to support the formation and organising of groups of transgender people, who can lead the way in addressing their own HIV-related needs.
Access to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment and for transgender people
Generally, data on transgender access to HIV treatment and testing services is scarce. In India, where there are successful targeted interventions, 9 out of 10 transgender people have access to HIV testing.
One study of people living with HIV in the USA found that only 59% of transgender participants, compared to 82% of those with a birth-assigned gender, were accessing ART.23 HIV-related stigma also creates a barrier to getting tested for many transgender people. In a study in the USA, 73% of transgender women who tested HIV-positive were unaware of their status.7
As with access to HIV prevention advice, transgender people may delay seeking testing and treatment due to transphobia and insensitivity among healthcare professionals.2
"Yes I tested and was not of the best as the person who pricked me urged me to change my life, as I being like I am is immoral, she said." - Transgender person, South Africa 24
Depression and isolation are often associated with a poor adherence to HIV treatment. A lack of supportive relationships can affect important aspects of living healthily with HIV, such as remembering to take medication. One study found that transgender people living with HIV were significantly less likely to report adherence to treatment of above 90% compared to patients who weren’t transgender.25 The study found that many transgender people found it difficult to integrate taking regular medication into their lives, such as hormone therapy.
Barriers to HIV prevention for transgender people
Transgender people will often experience social exclusion and marginalisation in the society that they live, and critically from family and friends. This can affect their self-esteem and self-worth, contributing to depression, anxiety, substance abuse and self-harm.3
In Latin America, between 44% and 70% of transgender woman were either thrown out, or felt the need to leave their homes. In the Philippines, paternal rejection is reported to be as high as 40% whilst transgender woman were transitioning.3
Lack of social safety nets also make transgender people particularly vulnerable to economic instability and homelessness. A survey from the US found that unemployment rates for transgender people were twice the national average.3
General isolation and social exclusion also affect access to treatment. Transgender people can be afraid to get tested if they don’t have a strong support network to help them cope:
"No, I won’t test. Who will take care of me when I test positive? I have no-one." - Transgender person, South Africa 24
Lack of recognition of gender identity
Many countries do not legally recognise the gender of transgender people, meaning they often lack official identification, passports and travel rights, welfare entitlements and the right to marry.26 They may also find it difficult to access education and employment. For transgender women facing criminal prosecution, incarceration with male inmates can also put them at risk of sexual assault.20
Healthcare system discrimination
Barriers to accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) among HIV-positive transgender people are well-documented.27 28 Discrimination from healthcare providers, a lack of knowledge about transgender needs and the refusal of many national health systems or health insurance providers to cover their care all contribute to situations where it is difficult for transgender people to receive adequate treatment. This can also encourage discrimination within healthcare services, making it hard to access sexual health services.
"Nine out of ten trans people do not consult doctors even in case of serious illness, because of the mistreatment they know they will face in health services." - Campaigner in Venezuela 29
In 2015, 76 countries still have laws that prohibit same-sex sexual activity, which can also affect transgender people, hindering their ability to access information about HIV risk and prevention.30 For example, if a transgender woman was legally recognised as a man because that was the gender she was born with, sex with a birth-assigned men would be illegal, so she may risk prosecution if she discussed her own sexual history with a healthcare professional.31
Laws such as these can legitimise acts of stigma, discrimination and violence against individuals.32 This can put transgender people at a greater risk of sexual abuse and violence, and HIV infection.33 In some cases, police shut down organisations that provide HIV prevention services on the basis that these services aid illicit activity such as sex work.34 In addition, most countries do not have laws that will criminalise acts of discrimination towards transgender people. Laws need to be put in place to protect their human rights.
Violence and transphobia
80% of all killings of transgender people took place in Latin America. It is estimated that around 1,200 transgender people have been murdered here. It is likely that this figure is vastly underreported. In one local transgender community based organisation in Honduras, Colectivo Unidad Color Rosa, six out of seven members have been murdered.3
Many people will feel unable to approach law enforcement about the issue. Between 2005 and 2012 in Colombia, 60 transgender women were murdered, and not one person was imprisoned as a result.37
"Altogether I have been shot nine times. There are witnesses but they are also afraid to make a statement. I myself have witnessed many other police attacks but I’m also afraid to report them. This is what the police call “social cleansing”. According to them, it’s because there are lots of complaints against transgender women doing sex work." - Specialist in Public Health and transgender human rights defender in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, July 2012 37
The way forward
There is a critical lack of data, limited funding for and research about transgender people and what drives their vulnerability to HIV.38
More effort is needed by researchers, governments and NGOs to collaborate to find ways to combat HIV among transgender communities – particularly in places where their legal rights are not respected. Initiatives should be developed in partnership with transgender communities, and in combination with a range of behavioural and structural interventions.
Although it is vital that transgender people around the world are informed about safer sex and how to protect themselves from HIV, until their rights are protected by law and respected by society they will continue to be vulnerable to HIV.
As well as protection by law, transgender people need better access to housing, employment and education if they are not to be driven towards high-risk behaviour.39They must be able to access appropriate transgender specific healthcare services and sexual health information, free from fear of criminalisation and discrimination.
Photo credit: Photo by Gates Foundation/CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. Photos are used for illustrative purposes. They do not imply any health status or behaviour on the part of the people in the photo.
- 1. a. b. c. APTN / UNDP (2012) ‘Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region’
- 2. a. b. c. WHO (2011) ‘Prevention and treatment of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender people’
- 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. UNAIDS (2014) 'The Gap Report'
- 4. Operario D, Soma T, Underhill K. (2008) 'Sex work and HIV status among transgender women: systematic review and meta-analysis', J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 48(1):97–103
- 5. UNDP (2010) 'Hijras / Transgender Women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion'
- 6. APTN / UNDP (2012) ‘Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region’
- 7. a. b. CDC (2011) ‘HIV Infection among Transgender People’
- 8. Herbst J. H. et al (2008) ‘Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: a systematic review.’ AIDS and Behaviour 12 (1)
- 9. Center of Excellence for Transgender Health (2012) ‘8 best practices for HIV prevention among trans people’
- 10. The Independent (April, 16th 2014) ‘India court recognises transgender people as 'third gender'’
- 11. APCOM (2008) ‘Mapping Transgender Groups, Organisations and Networks in South Asia’
- 12. a. b. c. d. e. UNAIDS (2015) ‘On the Fast-Track to end AIDS by 2030: Focus on location and population’
- 13. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (2012) ‘HIV Policy Assessment in Central America’
- 14. AIDSTAR-One (2012) ‘ PODCAST: Reaching Transgender and MSM Populations through Social Media’
- 15. Chaiyajit (2012) ' Sexperts! Disrupting injustice with digital community-led HIV prevention and legal rights education in Thailand' Digital Education and Culture
- 16. AIDSTAR-One (2012) ‘ PODCAST: Reaching Transgender and MSM Populations through Social Media
- 17. AIDSTAR-One (2012) ‘PODCAST: Reaching Transgender and MSM Populations through Social Media’
- 18. UNDP (2010) 'Hijras / Transgender Women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion'
- 19. UNDP (2010) ' Hijras / Transgender Women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion
- 20. a. b. APTN / UNDP (2012) ‘ Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region’
- 21. The Indian Express (2009, March 14th) ‘Sex-change for free’
- 22. APCOM (2008) ‘ Mapping Transgender Groups, Organisations and Networks in South Asia’
- 23. Melendez R. M. et al (2005) ‘Health and health care among male-to-female transgender persons who are HIV positive.’ American Journal of Public Health, 96 (6)
- 24. a. b. Gender Dynamix / amfAR (2012) ‘ Transgender Access to Sexual Health Services in South Africa’
- 25. Sevelius J. M. et al (2010) ‘ Antiretroviral therapy adherence among transgender women living with HIV.’ Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 21(3)
- 26. APCOM (2010) ‘Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among men who have sex with men and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific’
- 27. UNDP (2010) ' Hijras / Transgender Women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion'
- 28. Open Society Foundations (2013) ‘ Transforming Health: International Rights-based Advocacy for Trans Health’
- 29. Human Rights Watch (2009) ‘Together, Apart: Organizing around Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Worldwide’
- 30. ILGA (2015) State Sponsored Homophobia http://ilga.org/immediate-release-state-sponsored-homophobia-report-2015-10-years-criminalizing-countries-drop-92-76/
- 31. WHO (2011) ‘ Prevention and treatment of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender people’
- 32. ILGA (2015) 'State Sponsored Homophobia'
- 33. APCOM (2010) ‘Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among men who have sex with men and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific’
- 34. APCOM (2010) ‘ Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among men who have sex with men and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific’
- 35. Trans Respect versus Transphobia (2012) ‘ Trans Murder Monitoring Project’
- 36. Human Right Watch (2010, February 22nd) ‘ Turkey: Stop Violence Against Transgender People: Multiple Murders Highlight Inadequate State Protection’
- 37. a. b. International HIV/AIDS Alliance (2012) ‘ The night is another country: Impunity and violence against transgender women human rights defenders in Latin America’
- 38. Theron L. B. et al (2012, September 9th) ‘ Transgender in Africa: Invisible, inaccessible, or ignored?’ Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (SAHARA) 9 (3)
- 39. APCOM (2008) ‘ Mapping Transgender Groups, Organisations and Networks in South Asia’