Some nations, especially in Latin America, have progressive attitudes and policies regarding homosexuality and the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community.
However, the majority of Africa, along with the Middle East and Russia, continues to ignore and abuse the human rights of MSM.3 Punitive laws in various countries drive this population underground, elevating their risk of HIV and preventing them from accessing healthcare including HIV services.
What factors put MSM at risk of HIV?
The fact that HIV prevalence among MSM is so high in many countries means that members of this group have an increased chance of being exposed to the virus, due to mainly having sexual relations only within this group.4 However, there are also other factors that put MSM at heightened risk of HIV.
One major reason for high vulnerability to HIV among this group is that unprotected anal sex carries a higher risk of transmission than vaginal sex. This is because the walls of the anus are thin and more easily torn, creating an entry point for HIV into the bloodstream.5
Having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) also makes a person more susceptible to HIV infection. Among MSM, HIV testing and sexual health check-up frequency is low (less than 55% across all regions), so many are living with an undiagnosed STI that may put them at higher risk of HIV.1
MSM are often not aware of the particularly high risk of having unprotected sex with a person who has recently become infected. In London, United Kingdom (UK), a study reported that 27% of infections among MSM were from a partner recently infected with HIV.6
Having multiple sexual partners is more common among this community, and many do not use condoms consistently. In fact, MSM reporting easy access to condoms in 2012 varied from 29% in upper-middle income countries, to 45% in high-income countries, meaning that access to condoms worldwide remains inadequate for this group.1
Like condom access, HIV testing access is equally low, ranging between 25% and 54% across the world. By not testing for HIV, many MSM are unaware of their HIV status which can mean they are unaware of the need to take protective measures to prevent onwards transmission to others.1
Alcohol and drugs are a common part of socialising in some communities of men who have sex with men. Whenever drink and drugs are taken, it can make it more likely that people will have unprotected sex and a higher number of sexual partners, elevating vulnerability to HIV.7
MSM living with HIV often become HIV-positive while still young (4.2% of young MSM under 25 are living with HIV). This is more common in countries where HIV prevalence among the whole MSM population is quite high. It is also harder for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to access HIV services, due to age of consent laws or unsociable opening times. This prevents them from getting prevention information, commodities such as condoms, and treatment to prevent transmission to others.1
As of May 2014, a third of countries around the world (78) still criminalise same-sex conduct, affecting the rights of MSM and other members of the LGBT community. In five countries (Iran, Mauritania, Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen) homosexuality is punishable by the death penalty.3 As a result, MSM are less likely to access HIV services for fear of their sexual orientation and identity being revealed.
In many countries 'homosexual propaganda' is now banned too. Such laws have been introduced in countries such as Russia, Nigeria and Uganda, to 'support' homophobic laws, to prevent the promotion of homosexuality to the public and children in particular. The exact meaning of these laws is confusing, and LGBT rights groups and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working with this community have been punished under homosexual propaganda laws for helping 'promote' homosexuality.3
Social and cultural factors
Many men who have sex with men have experienced homophobic stigma, discrimination and violence. This drives MSM to hide their identity and sexual orientation, and many fear a negative reaction from healthcare workers. As a result, MSM are less likely to access HIV services.1
MSM are more likely to experience depression due to social isolation and disconnectedness from health systems, which can make it harder to cope with aspects of HIV such as adherence to medication.8
HIV prevention programmes for MSM
High HIV prevalence among MSM around the world is evidence of the lack of prevention strategies that are reaching this group.
Between 2009 and 2013, the percentage of MSM reached by HIV prevention programmes in 20 countries fell from 59% to 40%. However, access varies greatly between regions and within countries. For example, MSM on a higher income are more likely to be able to afford, and therefore access prevention initiatives, than those on a low income.1
When MSM are targeted by HIV prevention campaigns they can be extremely effective. It is important that a combination of prevention programmes are available.
In recognition of this, in 2015, the UNFPA, The Global Forum on MSM and HIV, UNDP, UNAIDS, WHO, United States Agency for International Development, the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation released a tool for use by public health officials, HIV and STI programmes officials, NGOs (both international and community-based) and health workers.9
The tool, Implementing Comprehensive HIV and STI Programmes with Men Who Have Sex with Men, provides recommendations for HIV prevention, testing and treatment for MSM and is based on successful community-led approaches.10
Condoms and lubricants
One of the most important prevention responses is to make high-quality condoms, along with water-based lubricants, available and accessible to men who have sex with men.
In some countries, gay bars and other known meeting places for men who have sex with men, such as bathhouses, provide and promote condoms and lubricants. The Blue Sky Club is a civil society group in Vietnam that provides 'edutainment' events in local bars and clubs, combining HIV education and condom distribution with entertainment events, which are well received by local MSM.11
Providing them in gay-friendly places is much more effective than expecting MSM to purchase them from pharmacies, or healthcare settings that they may be fearful of visiting.12
Many of the most successful HIV programmes aimed at men who have sex with men empower this group and actively involve them in a community setting.
In sub-Saharan Africa, studies have shown how HIV services that are targeted at, and run by MSM, have seen the greatest response and uptake.13 This avoids the necessity of attending general healthcare settings, where MSM risk identity and sexual orientation exposure that could be met with stigma and discrimination.14
Educating peers who are part of the MSM population to educate others, provide prevention commodities and link people to MSM-friendly HIV services has shown to effectively reach and engage this population. This prevention strategy works on the basis that there is an elevated sense of trust between members of the MSM population, whereby fear of stigma is eradicated.12 Organisations staffed by MSM are also more credible and accessible to recipients.15
In the Philippines, one initiative attempted to help civil society engage with local government in the HIV response. 18 community-based groups were set up and 200 MSM and transgender people were trained in sexual health and rights. After three years, community leadership led to dialogue with local government officials on HIV, gender and human rights issues. One outcome of this process was an anti-discrimination ordinance in the city of Cebu in 2012 which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and health status (including HIV).9
HIV testing initiatives
Two of the most effective ways to encourage HIV testing among MSM are to permit home-based testing, and provide community-based testing.
Home-based testing has the benefit of the user being able to avoid identification by healthcare workers.1 The privacy of conducting an HIV test alone at home is very favourable among MSM for this reason. One study in Brazil found that 90% of MSM participants would use self-testing kits, although concerns included receiving the result alone and being able to read the result properly.16 MSM should be educated about the use of self-testing kits, to heighten their confidence in using one if they are unwilling to test at regular healthcare settings.
Community-based testing at local pop-up clinics or mobile vans is also favoured among MSM. It means that they can access testing in a setting they are comfortable in, without having to travel to clinics where they may be seen or experience discrimination.12
PrEP and PEP
Recent research has shown that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce HIV transmission among MSM by 92%. The World Health Organisation (WHO) states that if its use is scaled up, an estimated 20% to 25% of new HIV infections among this population could be prevented.17
PrEP is a single pill taken every day by people who are at risk of HIV exposure, such as MSM. However, it is stressed that in order for the preventative effects to be realised, it must be taken correctly and consistently, alongside using condoms.18 MSM should be counselled and informed about the correct use of PrEP before it is offered.
By contrast, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is taken after potential exposure to HIV. WHO recommends offering PEP to MSM as part of a package of prevention options. It must also be coupled with counselling about the importance of finishing the treatment course. One study found that only 67% of MSM on average completed the 28 day course, limiting the effectiveness of PEP.19
Due to the preference for anonymity when it comes to accessing healthcare, some studies have shown that technology, messaging, and social media have helped to provide HIV prevention information to MSM.
One study in South Africa found that sending text messages to MSM over a period of time encouraged men to test for HIV.20 The Adam’s Love organisation in Bangkok, Thailand, used a dedicated website, social media and web message boards for online counselling, recruitment and appointment making. Between September 2011 and January 2015, over 11,000 MSM received online counselling while over 8,000 were referred to HIV testing services.21
These types of programmes should be further explored as an avenue to engage MSM in the HIV response and their own healthcare.22
Access to antiretroviral treatment for MSM
Currently, data on HIV treatment access among MSM is very limited. Worldwide, only 40% of MSM living with HIV are thought to be accessing treatment. Reasons cited for such low access include homophobia, stigma and discrimination, as they can cause MSM to delay, interrupt or avoid treatment altogether. Experiencing these reactions from healthcare workers is also given as a predominant reason.23
Likewise, information on treatment retention rates is also very low. However, one study that recruited 6,095 MSM from 145 countries reported a drop-off at every point along the treatment cascade. Drop-off was particularly dramatic among YMSM and MSM in lower-income countries due to a lack of investment and youth-friendly services. By contrast, comfort with provider, more community engagement and better accessibility of ART were associated with higher retention rates in care.24
Barriers to HIV prevention programmes for MSM
High-risk sexual behaviour
Due to widespread stigma, many MSM want to keep their sexual orientation secret, and may also continue to have heterosexual relationships and even get married. In Asia and the Pacific between 2003 and 2007, 21% to 42% of MSM were married.1
Many MSM have a low risk perception of HIV as a result of not being included in sex education classes in school, and not being reached with HIV prevention initiatives. Having multiple partners is also more common among this community, with alcohol and drug abuse fuelling high-risk sexual behaviour such as not using a condom.1
One internet survey found that 32% of men reported having unprotected anal sex with someone of the opposite HIV-status to themselves, therefore risking HIV transmission or being exposed to HIV.25
Where there are laws that criminalise same-sex sexual relations, governments are unlikely to promote any sort of HIV interventions aimed at men who have sex with men. As a result, MSM living in these countries are unaware of their risk of HIV, can be turned away from HIV services, are fearful of accessing HIV testing, and find it difficult to get hold of condoms and lubricants.1
They are also unlikely to participate in research or prevention initiatives:
"...certain states would rather publicise their diplomatic distaste for atypical bodies, genders and sexualities instead of endorsing the protection of human rights and wellbeing of everyone." - Gloria Carega & Azusa Yamashita 3
Stigma, discrimination and violence
A huge proportion of MSM worldwide have reported experiencing violence due to their sexual orientation. This is especially evident in machismo cultures, and patriarchal societies such as those in Latin America.26
In some areas, it is public officials or even healthcare workers that are committing these offences. The fear of being identified as homosexual deters many men from accessing these services, avoiding healthcare check-ups and treatment in order to keep their orientation secret.1
Lack of research
Although some statistics give an indication of the impact that HIV is having on men who have sex with men, data is still extremely scarce in many countries. This is largely due to the fact that MSM often have no separate social identity, and are simply counted as part of the general population.
It is also due to the reluctance of many governments to acknowledge men who have sex with men, and monitor this group. As a result, data about HIV among MSM is sparse, especially in regions like Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This is due mainly to the punitive laws that criminalise same-sex behaviour in the region, and an unwillingness of governments to accept that there is a disproportionate epidemic emerging among this population.1 73 countries failed to report on HIV prevalence among MSM in 2013.
It has been suggested that in settings where MSM are a particularly stigmatised group, collaborations between the government and NGOs are the most effective way to reach this population.27
"The frightening truth is that, in many parts of the world, we simply do not know how bad the epidemics among MSM groups may be… transmission among MSM is still not tracked in most countries, resulting in a significant research gap. More research is urgently needed to inform more effective HIV prevention efforts." - Dr. Chris Beyrer, Director of the Johns Hopkins Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program 28
Lack of funding
Apart from a handful of countries such as Brazil and Cuba, the majority of funding for HIV services targeted at MSM comes from international sources rather than domestic funding. In 2013, only 11% was domestically sourced worldwide.1
Between 2005 and 2013, 38 countries did not report on their budget for MSM programming at all, suggesting no money was allocated for this key population. In sub-Saharan Africa, 30 of the 45 countries reporting in 2013 reported no spending on MSM programming.1
Even in countries where the rights of men who have sex with men are legally respected, there is generally a greater need for more funding from donors and governments, as the amount of money put towards campaigns is often disproportionate to the scale of the problem.29
The way forward
The evidence shows that providing HIV and AIDS services to those who are most at risk can be hugely beneficial to a whole country’s approach to HIV and AIDS. Governments and international donors must therefore cease to neglect the HIV epidemic among men who have sex men, and acknowledge the situation.30
Not only is funding needed to provide HIV prevention, testing and treatment for MSM, but it's also needed to generate research and data to inform effective programming. Without allocated funding for research and programme delivery, high HIV prevalence among MSM will remain.
Stigma and cultural opposition to same-sex relations are often largely to blame for rising epidemics. Until these issues are addressed, it will be difficult to reduce HIV infection levels among men who have sex with men.31 National and community level leadership is required worldwide to end stigma and discrimination of homosexuality.1
Photo credit: ©iStock.com/DragonImages. Photos are used for illustrative purposes. They do not imply any health status or behaviour on the part of the people in the photo.
- 1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. UNAIDS (2014) 'The Gap Report'
- 2. Jamaica Ministry of Health (2014) 'Jamaica Country Progress Report'
- 3. a. b. c. d. ILGA (2014) 'State-sponsored Homophobia Report 2014'
- 4. CDC (2015) 'HIV Among Gay and Bisexual Men'
- 5. CDC (2015) 'HIV Transmission'
- 6. Sullivan, P. S. et al (2012, July) ‘Successes and challenges of HIV prevention in men who have sex with men’ The Lancet ‘HIV in men who have sex with men’
- 7. Bourne, A., and Harm Reduction International (2012) 'Drug Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Implications for Harm Reduction'
- 8. World Health Organisation (2011), 'Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender People'
- 9. a. b. United Nations Population Fund (UNPF) (2015) 'Implementing Comprehensive HIV and STI Programmes with Men Who Have Sex with Men: Practical Guidance for Collaborative Interventions'
- 10. United Nations Population Fund (UNPF) (2015) 'Implementing Comprehensive HIV and STI Programmes with Men Who Have Sex with Men: Practical Guidance for Collaborative Interventions'
- 11. UNDP (2011) 'Towards Universal Access: Examples of Municipal HIV Programming for Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender People in Six Asian Cities'
- 12. a. b. c. PEPFAR (2011) 'Technical Guidance on Combination HIV Prevention'
- 13. MSMGF (2013) 'MSM in Sub-Saharan Africa: Health, Access & HIV'
- 14. AIDSTAR-one (2011), 'Human rights considerations in addressing HIV among men who have sex with men'
- 15. Trapence G. et al (2012, July) ‘From personal survival to public health: community leadership by men who have sex with men in the response to HIV’. The Lancet, ‘HIV in men who have sex with men’
- 16. Lippman, SA (2014) 'Acceptability of self-conducted home-based HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Brazil: data from an online survey', Cadernos de saude publica, Vol 30(4) Pages724-34
- 17. WHO (2014) 'People most at risk of HIV are not getting the health services they need
- 18. Grant, RM., et al (2010) 'Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men', The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(27) pages 2587-99
- 19. Ford, N., et al (2014) 'Adherence to postexposure prophylaxis: a systematic review and meta-analysis', AIDS Journal, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 2721-2727
- 20. de Tolly, K., (2012) 'Investigation into the use of short message services to expand uptake of human immunodeficiency virus testing, and whether content and dosage have impact' Telemedicine journal and e-health 18(1):18-23
- 21. Anand, T. et al (2015) ‘Innovative strategies using communications technologies to engage gay men and other men who have sex with men into early HIV testing and treatment in Thailand’ Journal of Virus Eradication 1:111-115
- 22. AIDS-Star One (2013) 'Meeting Report: Innovative uses of communication technology for HIV programming for MSM & TG populations'
- 23. MSMGF (2013) 'Access Challenges for HIV Treatment Among People Living with HIV and Key Populations in Middle-Income Countries'
- 24. Ayala, G. et al (2014) ‘HIV Treatment Cascades that Leak: Correlates of Drop-off from the HIV Care Continuum among Men who have Sex with Men Worldwide’ Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 5:331
- 25. ECDC, Technical Report EMIS (2010) 'The European Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men Internet Survey'
- 26. UNAIDS (2014) 'Guidance Note: Services for gay men and other men who have sex with men'
- 27. Mumtaz G. et al (2011) ‘Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa? ' PLoS Medicine, 8 (8)
- 28. Medical News Today (2007, July) ‘Global Initiative Launched To Combat Increasing Spread Of HIV Among MSM In Developing Countries’
- 29. Roehr B. (2008, 29th November), 'The invisible epidemic' BMJ 337(7681)
- 30. Beyrer C. et al (2012, July) ‘A call to action for comprehensive HIV services for men who have sex with men’. The Lancet, ‘HIV in men who have sex with men’
- 31. UNAIDS (2009), ‘UNAIDS Action Framework: Universal Access for Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender People’