You are here
Gay Men in Africa & HIV/AIDS
Throughout most African countries, social and political stigma and discrimination creates an environment that makes it difficult for gay men to recaeive information and education about HIV, to access health services and to live an open life. This environment has also lead to an absence of information about how many gay men are living with HIV and AIDS in Africa.
Gay men or men who have sex with men?
Gay, bisexual, homosexual, transgender, transexual and heterosexual are all terms that men who have sex with men (MSM) may use to describe their sexual identity. This page covers issues affecting all men who have sex with men in Africa. However, as the term 'gay' is more widely used throughout Africa, this term is generally used throughout the page to refer to all of the identities outlined above.
What is the legal situation regarding gay men in Africa?
Anti-gay laws often contradict the constitution of African countries and their commitment to human rights.1 2 Nevertheless, across the African continent a total of 36 countries out of 53 have laws, as shown below, which make homosexuality a criminal offence.3 Laws differ markedly both between countries and within countries.4 Imprisonment is the most common punishment, the term of which can vary dramatically depending on the country or even region; for example from 10 days in Eritrea to a life sentence in Sierra Leone. Other punishments include the death penalty, flogging and imprisonment with hard labour or a fine. The type of punishment and its severity is ruled in accordance with the details of an offence (e.g. public/private act, with a minor, against ‘the will’ of another person, a repeated act, whether the act involved actual intercourse or ‘gross indecency’). In countries that do not have laws against homosexuality, social stigma and discrimination still occur and in some cases men who have sex with men are still subject to arrest for crimes such as vagrancy.5
|Algeria||Imprisonment||2 months - 2 years||Yes|
|Burundi||Imprisonment||3 months - 2 years||Yes|
|Comoros||Imprisonment||1 year - 5 years||Yes|
|Egypt||Imprisonment||3 months - 3 years||Yes|
|Eritrea||Imprisonment||10 days - 7 years||N/A|
|Ethiopia||Imprisonment||10 days - 15 years||N/A|
|Ghana||Imprisonment||5 years - 25 years||N/A|
|Guinea||Imprisonment||6 months - 3 years||Yes|
|Kenya||Imprisonment||5 years - 21 years||N/A|
|Lesotho||Common law offence||N/A||N/A|
|Liberia||First degree misdemeanor||N/A||N/A|
|Mauritania||Death by public stoning
|3 months - 2 years||Yes|
|Morocco||Imprisonment||6 months - 3 years||Yes|
|Nambia||Common law offence||N/A||N/A|
|Nigeria||Federal Law: Imprisonment*.
Sharia Law: Death penalty.
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Labour camp||N/A||N/A|
|Senegal||Imprisonment||1 year - 5 years||Yes|
|Sierra Leone||Life imprisonment||Life imprisonment||N/A|
|Somalia||Penal Code: Imprisonment*.
Sharia Law: (southern region)
Death penalty / flogging.
|3 months - 3 years*||N/A|
|Sudan||Flogging & imprisonment.
[Death penalty or life imprisonment*
if convicted 3 times]
|<14 years - life imprisonment*||Yes|
|Swaziland||Common law offence||N/A||N/A|
|Tanzania||Imprisonment||1 year - life imprisonment||Yes|
|Uganda||Imprisonment||7 years - life imprisonment||N/A|
|Zambia||Imprisonment||5 years - 14 years||N/A|
Living as a gay man in Africa
For many gay men in Africa, life is a constant struggle. Some men choose to hide their sexuality and are condemned to a life of secrecy. As a result, a significant number of African gay men are also married and in some cases have children.6
Men who choose to live an open life or who are exposed as being gay are often subject to unrelenting stigma and discrimination to such an extent that they can be denied a normal life.7 8 9 10 This can have profound effects on their life and general health.11 12 13 14 Attacks, random arrests, murder, and even the desecration of gay men after they have died have been reported across the African continent.15 16 17 Such an environment reinforces feelings of fear and insecurity among the gay community, which can prevent men who have sex with men from accessing HIV prevention, treatment and care services.
“Most of us choose to stay home and wait for our fate rather than go to hospital and face discrimination”18Anonymous homosexual man living in Kenya.
Over the last ten years there have been increasing reports of hostility towards gay men in Africa, with a particularly high number of incidences occurring throughout 2009 and 2010.
In 2009 Member of the Ugandan Parliament, David Bahati, tabled a draft bill in an attempt to punish same sex acts with the death penalty.19 Following this, there was a notable rise in homophobia throughout Uganda and other African countries, such as Kenya. Prior to the ‘Bahati Bill’ African gay men living in Mtwapa, Kenya had been able to live relatively openly.20 However, after the bill, community hostility and attacks upon gay men increased.21
Another widely publicised incident took place in December 2009, when two men in Malawi were arrested after holding an engagement ceremony. The men were reportedly beaten and one was forced to undergo an anal examination as part of efforts to prove they had engaged in same-sex acts.22
It is feared that a rise in hostility towards men who have sex with men will result in this group becoming harder to reach and unlikely to access sexual health services.23
Impact of homophobia on HIV and AIDS in Africa
The extent that this group contributes to the transmission of HIV in Africa cannot be fully assessed, due to the low number of studies that have been carried out on gay men living in African countries. Nevertheless, studies that exist make it clear that if HIV prevention, treatment and care services exclude gay men, efforts to prevent new HIV infections are undermined. The limited HIV data available on gay men in Africa shows that HIV prevalence is often high among this group.24 25 26 27 28
HIV prevention, treatment and care services are essential to prevent further HIV infections. However, it is very difficult for gay men in Africa to access these services, due to widespread intolerance towards them.29 As a group at risk of becoming infected with HIV, this is very harmful both to them and society.
Homophobia as a barrier to healthcare and HIV services
The risk of arrest, violence, harassment and social discrimination associated with coming out as a gay man in Africa often prevents men who have sex with men (MSM) from openly expressing their sexual orientation. This can make it difficult for service providers to deliver essential services, such as information about how to prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs, to men that need them.
As information for gay men is not widely available, especially in traditional heath settings, this situation can lead to a lack of knowledge about how to practice anal sex safely and how to access HIV treatment and care.30 31
Moreover, non-governmental organisations that deliver basic sexual health education, HIV services and resources to gay men are often at risk of harassment, particularly in countries that criminalize same-sex partnerships. Numerous accounts of HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organizations and their staff being targeted by the authorities have been reported.32 33 34 35 36 After the high-profile arrest of nine HIV prevention workers in Senegal for “acts against nature”, many MSM no longer felt safe attending educational meetings. Social networks, vital for the mental health and well-being of people who may feel marginalised by society, fell apart:
“MSM dare not receive or go to talks or to seek condoms. They continue to have unprotected sex…our association fell apart” Member of an association for MSM in Senegal37
Gay men who are infected with HIV often face discrimination not only on the grounds of their sexual identity but also because of their HIV status.38 39 By ostracising gay men from services the risk of them becoming infected with HIV or infecting others becomes greater.
“many gay men in Africa have been refused health care due to their sexuality”
Reports show that HIV information is not reaching gay men in Africa.40 41 This is concerning as a lack of knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases can lead to increasing HIV infections.42 For example, in a Nigerian study of more than a thousand men who have sex with men, 31 percent of men believed that HIV is less likely to be transmitted during sex between men, than during sex with a woman.43 Low use of condoms and the use of lubricants such as hair cream, Vaseline, soap, baby oil and saliva (which can damage condoms)44 was also reported.
It has been found that for many men who have sex with men, free condoms and lubricant (which are often too expensive to purchase) are difficult to access.45 Furthermore, some gay men report that finding water-based lubricants can also be difficult.46
In the absence of education about HIV and how high-risk behaviour can increase the risk of becoming infected, gay men in Africa are often unaware that having many partners and not practicing sex safely consistently can lead to a higher risk of HIV transmission. A study of 142 MSM in Cameroon found 57 percent had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with a male partner in the last 6 months, 44 percent of men reported sex with 2 to 4 partners in the last 6 months and 21 percent reported 5 or more partners in the last six months.47
In addition to the problems with accessing information, gay men in Africa often face barriers when they try to access health care. Many health providers discriminate against and stigmatise gay men.48 For example, reports from across a number of countries reflect that many gay men in Africa:49
- Have been refused health care due to their sexuality
- Distrust health care providers
- Are rarely open with their health care providers
- Do not access health care due to fears of discrimination
These factors can result in STDs and HIV among gay men remaining undiagnosed and untreated. This places men who are not infected with HIV at risk of becoming infected and among those that are already infected with HIV at risk of early progression to AIDS or of infecting others.50
Homophobia: The impact upon society
African governments that maintain an environment that excludes gay men from health information and services are putting the health not only of gay men but of the wider population at risk. Complex sexual networks mean that HIV can be transmitted both from the heterosexual population to gay men and from gay men to the heterosexual population.51 52 53 For example, it is evident that many African gay men also have wives or girlfriends.54 55 56
This was reflected in a Cameroon study, which found 49 percent of participants also reported sex with a woman in the last 6 months, 29 percent had at least one child and 13 percent were married.57 This tendency is supported by other studies, for example a 2006 study in Kenya of men attending VCT clinics found that of 88,738 men, 780 had sex with men and of these 69 percent also had sex with women.58 Therefore, only delivering essential health care and information about preventing HIV to certain groups within society undermines efforts to prevent the transmission of HIV throughout the general population.
Other high-risk behaviour among gay men in Africa
Some gay men also inject drugs and/or are sex workers.59 60 61 In some cases this may be a result of stigma and discrimination, which can sometimes lead to gay men becoming socially, economically and emotionally vulnerable. For example, they may lose their jobs, their homes, and be forced out of their communities and therefore revert to sex work for financial reasons. Gay men who engage in these practices are at risk of becoming infected with HIV if they do not take preventative measures such as using condoms or clean needles consistently.
Why do people discriminate against gay men in Africa?
Throughout Africa, it is widely believed that homosexuality is a western evil; an imported concept that is ‘un-African’. This belief is often used to justify homophobia. However, studies suggest that this is a misconception and that there is evidence of homosexuality existing in African societies prior to colonialism.62 63 64 65 Some claim that many Africans have forgotten that sex between men was a part of their culture and that in many countries, it was anti-gay laws initially enforced by colonial powers, that encouraged intolerance of gay men in Africa.66 67
Religion is also used as a basis for justifying homophobia. Many religious leaders claim that sex between men is “sinful, abnormal or immoral”.68 69 Their position of power and influence among communities has meant that this view is rarely, if ever, opposed.70 As leaders of anti-gay marches71, petitioners for anti-gay bills72 and outspoken critics73 of political leaders who support the rights of African gay men, religious leaders (from Africa and abroad74 75 76 77) have become one of the main drivers of homophobia in Africa.78 79
It is evident that public opinion can have an impact on Government decision-making.80 81 For reasons discussed above, in most countries popular opinion is largely against the rights of gay men and the continued existence of anti-gay laws reflects this.82 However, governments that maintain anti-gay laws are legitimising the stigma and discrimination of gay men. Moreover, politicians that actively encourage intolerance of gay men are contributing directly to the recent rise in homophobia.83 84
“ Show me where Christ said, "Love thy fellow man, except for the gay ones." Gay people, too, are made in my God's image”
- Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, South Africa, Desmond Tutu
A result of governments endorsing homophobia is that the media are under pressure to also endorse it.85 Media is a powerful tool through which public opinion can be formed and currently the media are at the forefront of the victimisation of gay men in Africa.86 87 88 89
Whilst those who oppose sex between men have voiced their opinions the loudest, it is important to recognise that not all governments, politicians and religious leaders in Africa believe homosexuality is wrong.90 Some religious leaders who support the rights of gay men are members of organisations, for example ‘The Other Sheep,' that confront the stigma and discrimination of individuals based on their sexual orientation.91
A prominent advocate for the rights of homosexuals is the Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, South Africa, Desmond Tutu. In 2010 he said: “Show me where Christ said, "Love thy fellow man, except for the gay ones." Gay people, too, are made in my God's image”.92 Similarly, homosexuality is not opposed in all countries or by all politicians.93 At the end of 1996 South Africa legalised same-sex marriage94 and in 2010, Kenyan MP Esther Murugi voiced her support for the health rights and needs of gay men at a symposium on HIV/AIDS.95 96
It is widely acknowledged that in order to deliver HIV prevention, treatment and care to gay men in Africa, a number of steps must be taken both by African governments and by international and local organisations.
The abolishment of anti-gay laws, the formulation of legislation which punishes the discrimination of gay men and enforces their rights, and a reference to sexuality in human rights frameworks have been identified as essential changes to be made by governments.97 98 99 100
The effectiveness of HIV prevention campaigns in reducing risky behaviour among gay men has been shown.101 Governments should ensure that these are successful and reach gay men. This can be achieved by including gay men in nationwide HIV surveys and strategies and by making resources available for men who have sex with men specific HIV prevention, treatment and care programmes.102 103 104 Including gay men in the design and implementation of prevention programmes has been successful and it is suggested that network based interventions and involving gay men as peer educators should be adopted to improve the reach and design of programmes.105 106 107
Also, in order to change social attitudes to gay men, individuals should be educated on the rights and needs of gay men. This should happen through school programmes, training for health care workers and workshops for media organisations.108 109 110 111
- 1. Human Rights Watch (2010, 21st May) 'Zambia: Intolerance threatens health, Rights'
- 2. African Union (1981) ‘African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights’
- 3. Daniel Ottosson/ILGA (2010, May) ‘State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults’
- 4. Daniel Ottosson/ILGA (2010, May) ‘State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults’
- 5. Daniel Ottosson/ILGA (2010, May) ‘State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults’
- 6. Henry, E et al. (2010) ‘Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in Douala, Cameroon’ Sexually transmitted infections (86)
- 7. Cloete A. et. al (2008, October) 'Stigma and discrimination experiences of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa' AIDS Care
- 8. Baral, S et al. (2009) ‘HIV prevalence risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana’ Plos One 4(3)
- 9. Lane T et al. (2008) 'They see you as a different thing: the experiences of men who have sex with men with healthcare workers in South African township communities' Sex Transm Infect 84
- 10. Times of Swaziland (2010, 17th February) 'Gays turned back in clinics'
- 11. Sjolund, Y (2011, 13th May) 'Alarming HIV-prevalence stats' Mail & Guardian
- 12. Capital News (2010, 5th October) 'Human rights group back Murugi'
- 13. This Magazine (2009, 6th August) 'In the shadows too long, one of Kenya’s gay male prostitutes speaks out for change'
- 14. The Huffington Post (2012, September) 'Growing Up Gay in Senegal'
- 15. MSNBC (2010, 11th March) 'Even after death, abuse against gays continues'
- 16. Amnesty International (2010, 22nd March) 'Malawian men facing trial for "gross indecency" must be released'
- 17. IGLHRC (2009, 29th December) 'Senegal: Twenty-four men arrested at a party'
- 18. Capital News (2010, 5th October) 'Human rights groups back Murugi'
- 19. BBC News (2009, 22nd December) ‘Uganda fear over gay death-penalty plans’
- 20. BBC News (2010, 16th June) 'Gay pride and prejudice in Kenya'
- 21. Daily Nation (2010, 12th February) 'Mob attacks gay 'wedding' party'
- 22. Amnesty International (2010, 22nd March) 'Malawian men facing trial for "gross indecency" must be released'
- 23. Behind the Mask (2010, 8th June) 'Anti-gay march could hamper HIV interventions in Ghana'
- 24. Angala, P et al. (2006) 'Men who have sex with men (MSM) as presented in VCT data in Kenya' XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto Canada
- 25. Wade, AS et al. (2005, 2nd December) 'HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Senegal' AIDS 19(18)
- 26. Baral, S et al. (2009) ‘HIV prevalence risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana’ Plos One 4(3)
- 27. Johnston, L 'HIV infection and risk factors among men who have sex with men in Zanzibar (Ugunja), Tanzania' XVII International AIDS Conference, 3-8 August 2008, Mexico City
- 28. Sjolund, Y (2011, 13th May) 'Alarming HIV-prevalence stats' Mail & Guardian
- 29. McIntyre, J (2010) ‘The need for HIV prevention interventions for men who have sex with men in Africa’ Sexually transmitted infections (86)
- 30. UNAIDS (2009, 11th August) 'Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of people living with HIV'
- 31. Reuters (2007, 1st March) ‘Anti-gay discrimination fuels HIV/AIDS in Africa: Report’
- 32. Irin/plus news (2009, 19th January) 'Senegal: Jailing of gay activists sets back AIDS fight'
- 33. The Guardian (2010, 28th May) 'Zimbabwe gay rights workers released after alleged torture'
- 34. CNN world (2010, 7th February) 'Malawi man arrested for posting gay rights posters'
- 35. IGLHRC (2009, 30th October) 'Tanzania: Arbitrary arrests and detentions of Gay and Lesbian Activists'
- 36. BBC News (2004, 5th October) 'Sierra Leone gay activist killed'
- 37. Poteat T. et al (2011, 14th December) ‘HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices' PLoS ONE, 6 (12)
- 38. AIDS 2010 (2010, 21st July) 'Men Who have Sex with Men: Homophobia and HIV in Africa' XVIII International AIDS Conference, Vienna
- 39. Daniel Ottosson/ILGA (2010, May) ‘State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults’
- 40. Kajubi, P et al. (2008, May) 'Gay and bisexual men in Kampala, Uganda' AIDS Behav 12(3)
- 41. Ntata PR (2008, July) ‘Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related attitudes and practices of men having sex with men in central and southern Malawi’ Tanzan J Health Res 10(3)
- 42. Smith, AD et al. (2009, 1st August) 'Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa' Lancet 374(9687)
- 43. Adebajo, S et al. (2008) ‘Men, Sexuality and Health in the context of HIV and AIDS’ (part 1)
- 44. Social Marketing Update (1997) 'Dispelling some myths about condoms' International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project of The Futures Group
- 45. MSMGF (2010, 29th November) 'Groundbreaking global survey indicates most gay men worldwide cannot access basic HIV prevention and services'
- 46. Moreau et al (2007) 'Implementing STI/HIV prevention and care interventions for men who have sex with men in Senegal' Horizons Research Summary. Washington, DC: Population Council.
- 47. Henry, E et al. (2010) ‘Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in Douala, Cameroon’ Sexually transmitted infections (86)
- 48. Lane, T (2008) '“They see you as a different thing”: the experiences of men who have sex with men with healthcare workers in South African township communities' Sec Transm Infect 84:6
- 49. Cary Alan Johnson (2007) ‘Off the Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing Same-Sex Practicing People in Africa’ IGLHRC
- 50. Cary Alan Johnson (2007) ‘Off the Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing Same-Sex Practicing People in Africa’ IGLHRC
- 51. Tovanabutra, S et. al (2010, February) 'Evaluation of HIV type 1 strains in men having sex with men and in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya' AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26(2)
- 52. IPS (2010, 20th July) 'HIV strain among gays the same as strain in heterosexuals'
- 53. Sanders E J (2007, 30th November) ‘HIV-1 infection in high risk men who have sex with men in Mombasa, Kenya’
- 54. Caceres, C F et al. ‘Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low and middle- income countries: 2003-2007 estimates’
- 55. Beyrer C et. al (2010) 'Bisexual concurrency, bisexual partnerships, and HIV among Southern African men who have sex with men' Sexually Transmitted Infections 86
- 56. Adebajo, S et al. (2008) ‘Men, Sexuality and Health in the context of HIV and AIDS’ (part 1)
- 57. Henry, E et al. (2010) ‘Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in Douala, Cameroon’ Sexually transmitted infections (86)
- 58. Angala, P et al. (2006) 'Men who have sex with men (MSM) as presented in VCT data in Kenya' XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto Canada
- 59. Parry, C (2008) 'Rapid assessment of drug-related HIV risk among men who have sex with men in three South African cities' Drug Alcohol Depend. 1:95
- 60. Geibel, S (2007) '"Are you on the market?": a capture-recapture enumeration of men who sell sex to men in and around Mombasa, Kenya' AIDS 21:10
- 61. PlusNews (2010, April 20th) 'KENYA: Bisexual male sex workers run big risks'
- 62. Evans-Pritchard, Edward E (1970) 'Sexual inversion among the Azande' American Anthropologist 72 1428-34
- 63. Roscoe, W and Murray, S O (2001) 'Boy-Wives and Female-Husbands: Studies in African homosexualities'
- 64. Blackwood, E (1986) 'Anthropology and Homosexual Behavior'
- 65. Semugoma, P et. al (2012, July) 'The irony of homophobia in Africa' The Lancet S0140-6736(12)
- 66. The Guardian (2010, 23rd March) ‘African myths about homosexuality’
- 67. Roscoe, W and Murray, S O (2001) 'Boy-Wives and Female-Husbands: Studies in African homosexualities'
- 68. Daily Nation (2010, 1st October) 'Murugi urges Kenyans to accepts gays'
- 69. BBC News (2010, 18th February) 'Uganda gay-porn stunt 'twisted''
- 70. BBC News (2005, 14th September) 'Africans trust religious leaders'
- 71. Reuters (2010, 4th February) 'Obama condemns Uganda anti-gay bill as "odious"'
- 72. All Africa (2010, 30th April) 'Uganda: Cultural Leaders Request Legislator to Pass Gays Bill'
- 73. Daily Nation (2010, 3rd October) 'Churches want Murugi sacked over gay remarks'
- 74. The New York Times (2010, 4th January) ‘Americans’ role seen in Uganda anti-gay push’
- 75. Kaoma, K (2009) 'Globalizing the culture wars: U.S Conservatives, African Churches & Homophobia'
- 76. Afrik-News (2010, 16th February) 'Ugandans protest against Obama and anti-gay bill'
- 77. BBC News (2010, 23rd February) 'Religions, politics and Africa's homophobia'
- 78. Human Rights Watch (2010, 17th February) 'Kenya: Halt Anti-Gay Campaign"
- 79. The New York Times (2005, 18th December) 'Nigerian Anglicans seeing Gay Challenge to Orthodoxy'
- 80. Zackie Achmat in Human Rights Watch (2003, 13th May) 'More than a name: State-Sponsored Homophobia and its consequences in Southern Africa'
- 81. Fihlani, P (2010, 23rd February) 'Religion, politics and Africa's homophobia' Worldwide Religious News
- 82. Irin (2010, 19th January) 'Africa: Crackdowns on gays make the closet safer'
- 83. Human Rights Watch (2008, 11th June) 'Gambia: President should disavow reported homophobic threats'
- 84. The Independent (1995, 27th August) 'Mugabe's ill-fitting suit of moral outrage'
- 85. Human Rights Watch (2009, May) ‘Together, Apart: Organizing around sexual orientation and gender identity worldwide’
- 86. Advocate.com (2009, 20th May) 'Ugandan Paper Outs More Than 50 "Top Homos"'
- 87. The Guardian (2011, 27th January) 'Ugandan gay rights activist David Kato found murdered'
- 88. The Guardian (2010, 21st October) 'Ugandan paper calls for gay people to be hanged'
- 89. Berger, G (2012) 'Media in Africa: Twenty years after the Windhoek Declaration on press freedom' Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA)
- 90. The Guardian (2009, 4th December) 'Ugandan church leader brands anti-gay bill 'genocide''
- 91. Fihlani, P (2010, 23rd February) 'Religion, politics and Africa's homophobia' Worldwide Religious News
- 92. The Washington Post (2010, 12th March) 'In Africa, a step backward on human rights'
- 93. BBC News (1998, 9th October) 'World: Africa Gay rights win in South Africa'
- 94. BBC News (2006, 14th November) 'S Africa approves same-sex unions'
- 95. Daily Nation (2010, 1st October) 'Murugi urges Kenyans to accepts gays'
- 96. The Guardian (2010, 10th October) 'Gay rights in Africa: now for the good news'
- 97. Moody, K (2009) 'Ensuring human and sexual rights for men who have sex with men living with HIV' Bulletin of the World Health Organization 87(11)
- 98. 'The Yogyakarta Principles: An Overview'
- 99. UNAIDS (2005) ‘Report of a UNAIDS stakeholder consultation: Men who have sex with men, HIV prevention and care’ Geneva, 10-11 November 2005
- 100. Cary Alan Johnson (2007)‘Off the Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing Same-Sex Practicing People in Africa’IGLHRC
- 101. Wade, AS et al (2010, April) 'Reduction in risk-taking behaviours among MSM in Senegal between 2004 and 2007 and prevalence of HIV and other STIs' AIDS Care 22(4)
- 102. UNAIDS (2005) Report of a UNAIDS stakeholder consultation: Men who have sex with men, HIV prevention and care’ Geneva, 10-11 November 2005
- 103. Henry, E et al. (2010) ‘Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in Douala, Cameroon’ Sexually transmitted infections (86)
- 104. Adam, P et al. (2009, December) 'Estimating levels of HIV testing, HIV prevention coverage, HIV knowledge, and condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low-income and middle-income countries' JAIDS 52(S143-S151)
- 105. Coates, T J et. al (2008, 6th August) 'Behavioural strategies to reduce HIV transmission: how to make them work better' The Lancet 372(9639)
- 106. UNAIDS (2008) ‘ICASA 2008: Men who have sex with men and HIV in Africa’
- 107. AIDSTAR One (2011, 30th November) 'HUMAN RIGHTS CONSIDERATIONS IN ADDRESSING HIV AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN '
- 108. ILGA (2010, May) ‘State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults’
- 109. UNAIDS (2005) ‘Report of a UNAIDS stakeholder consultation: Men who have sex with men, HIV prevention and care’ Geneva, 10-11 November 2005
- 110. Moreau et al (2007) 'Implementing STI/HIV prevention and care interventions for men who have sex with men in Senegal' Horizons Research Summary. Washington, DC: Population Council.
- 111. Cary Alan Johnson (2007) ‘Off the Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing Same-Sex Practicing People in Africa’ IGLHRC